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Large Excavators

Caterpillar serves all regions of the world so we build many different configurations of hydraulic excavators. Your Cat® dealer has exact machine specifications available in your area to help you choose what will best meet your needs.

390D L Hydraulic Excavator

The Cat® 390D L Hydraulic Excavator has excellent control, high stick and bucket forces, simplified service and a comfortable operator station to increase your productivity and lower operating costs.

Product Details


Engine Model Cat® C18 ACERT™ (ATAAC)
Net Flywheel Power 390.0 kW
Net Power - EEC 80/1269 390.0 kW
Bore 145.0 mm
Stroke 183.0 mm
Displacement 18.1 L
Power - ISO 14396 (imperial) 401.0 kW
Power - ISO 14396 (metric) 401.0 kW
Power - ISO 9249 (metric) 390.0 kW
Power - ISO 9249/SAE J1349 (imperial) 390.0 kW
Power - ISO 9249/SAE J1349 (metric) 390.0 kW


Operating Weight 92380.0 kg
Operating Weight - Long Undercarriage: Maximum - Mass Configuration 92380.0 kg
Operating Weight - Long Undercarriage: Minimum - Reach Configuration 86190.0 kg


Maximum Travel Speed 4.5 km/h
Gradeability 35°/70%
Maximum Drawbar Pull 590.0 kN

Hydraulic System

Main System - Maximum Flow (Total) 980.0 L/min
Swing System - Maximum Flow 460.0 L/min
Pilot System - Maximum Flow 90.0 L/min
Boom Cylinder - Bore 210.0 mm
Boom Cylinder - Stroke 1967.0 mm
Stick Cylinder - Bore 220.0 mm
Stick Cylinder - Stroke 2262.0 mm
HB2 Family Bucket Cylinder - Bore 200.0 mm
HB2 Family Bucket Cylinder - Stroke 1451.0 mm
JC Family Bucket Cylinder - Bore 220.0 mm
JC Family Bucket Cylinder - Stroke 1586.0 mm
Maximum Pressure - Equipment - Heavy Lift 350.0 bar
Maximum Pressure - Equipment - Normal 350.0 bar

Service Refill Capacities

Fuel Tank Capacity 1240.0 L
Cooling System 101.0 L
Engine Oil 65.0 L
Swing Drive (each) 19.0 L
Final Drive (each) 21.0 L
Hydraulic System Oil Capacity (including tank) 995.0 L
Hydraulic Tank Oil 480.0 L

Sound Performance

Performance ANSI/SAE J1166 OCT98


Brakes SAE J1026 APR90
Cab/FOGS SAE J1356 FEB88/ISO 10262

Swing Mechanism

Swing Speed 6.2 RPM
Swing Torque 260.0 kN·m


Number of Shoes (each side) - Long Undercarriage 51
Number of Track Rollers (each side) - Long Undercarriage 9
Number of Carrier Rollers (each side) 3


Precise power and control to move more material

Main Pumps

The hydraulic system includes three pumps with an independent swing circuit. The hydraulic circuit utilizes a load-sensing system to ensure high efficiency and productivity with little hydraulic loss.

Swing Dampening Valve

A swing dampening valve reduces wagging, which produces smoother, time-saving swing stops.

Implement Pressure

Increased implement pressure provides shorter cycle times, stronger digging forces and greater bucket fill factors.

Auxiliary Hydraulics

Standard auxiliary hydraulics are managed electronically, making the machine more versatile.

Proportional Priority Pressure Compensation (PPPC) Hydraulics

The load-sensing PPPC system with proprietary electronic actuation provides excellent efficiency and controllability.
  • Pump discharge flow matches the operator’s desired speed, which makes for extremely smooth shifting from neutral to full stroke.
  • Pump flow volume all goes to the actuator, which ensures the delivery of maximum hydraulic energy. Even if load pressure changes during actuation, the control lever position does not vary, which makes for consistent, reliable operation.

Operator Station

Simple and comfortable for maximum productivity

Cab Design

The spacious cab provides excellent visibility and ergonomics. The full-color monitor provides the operator with easy-to-read, comprehensive machine information.

Cab Exterior

The cab utilizes thick steel tubing along the bottom to reduce vibration and fatigue. The cab structure allows the FOGS to be bolted directly to the cab either at the factory or as an attachment.

Cab Mounts

The cab shell is attached to the frame with viscous rubber cab mounts, which dampen vibrations and sound levels to enhance operator comfort.

Additional Features

The 390D L operator station has many features for operator comfort.
  • Premium air suspension seat with adjustable/tilt console.
  • Low effort joysticks.
  • Numeric view of fuel consumption on the monitor.
  • Optional rearview camera for added safety.
  • Optional HID (High Intensity Discharge) lights with time delay for the boom and cab lights.
  • Two-way radio-ready option.


Power to move more dirt with less fuel

Cat® C18 Engine

The C18 engine with ACERT™ Technology powers the 390D L. The C18 has a proven record of long life. Materials like high-strength steels and cast iron contribute to its durability, while uniquely designed water-cooled turbochargers and mechanically actuated fuel injection contribute to its reliability.

Improved Fuel Efficiency

The 390D L optimizes fuel consumption through flexible power settings incorporated into the ADEM™ controller, which electronically manages engine response to load demand. The operator can select High Production, Standard or Economy mode to meet application requirements.

Hydraulic Cooling Fans

The 390D L uses hydraulically driven cooling fans that operate based on coolant and hydraulic oil temperatures. To reduce load when cranking the engine, the cooling fan speed is fixed for a set amount of time after the engine is started and then is increased gradually to a specific speed.

Reversible Fan

A reversible fan option is offered to help clean the cooling package for increased uptime and reduced service cost.

Control System

Easy to view, easy to manage

Monitor Display

The monitor is a full-color Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). A master caution lamp blinks ON and OFF when one of the critical conditions below occurs:
  • Engine oil pressure low
  • Coolant temperature high
  • Hydraulic oil temperature high
Under normal conditions or the default condition, the monitor display screen is divided into four areas: clock and throttle dial, gauge, event display and multi-functional display.

Gauge Display

Three analog gauges - fuel level, hydraulic oil temperature and coolant temperature - are displayed in this area.

Pattern Control Changer

The standard hand control pattern changer can be accessed through the monitor to utilize either the standard excavator control pattern or backhoe pattern, making it easier for operators to work in the mode they are accustomed.

Electronic Joysticks

Electronic joysticks provide features not possible with hydraulic pilot valves:
  • Eliminate pilot lines in cab for quieter operation
  • Simple pattern change through the monitor

Operator Gain/Response

This is used to suit the operator preference or application.
  • Faster for quick response
  • Slower for more precision

Product Link

Product Link is a proprietary Caterpillar technology that tracks machine location, product health, hours of use and fuel consumption. This information is transmitted back to customers to help maximize machine productivity.


Rugged and durable for many applications

Variable Gauge Undercarriage

The long variable gauge undercarriage is standard, providing a wide, stable base for operating or a narrow gauge for reduced shipping width. Changes to the 390D L undercarriage include:
  • Improved track link to reduce and avoid stresses
  • Improved carrier rollers to reduce the risk of leaking lubrication oil
  • Improved forged idler for added durability in severe underfoot conditions
  • Positive Pin Retention 2 (PPR2) to prevent pin movement


Slip-resistant catwalks are 500 mm wide and stretch the length of the machine to provide safe access to major service points.

Track Roller Frame

The thick, steel-plated track roller frame is welded into a box structure, which provides increased rigidity and impact resistance.


Strong, stable and durable


The undercarriage supports the swing bearing and upper structure and is the link that transmits the reaction forces from digging to the ground. The strength of the Cat undercarriage plays a major factor in machine stability and durability.

Track Roller Frame

The track roller frame has been improved by installing a longer stroke recoil spring and lowering the front idler. The longer recoil spring improves durability and service life of the undercarriage, and the offset idler increases the stability of the machine while working over the front.

Positive Pin Retention 2 (PPR2)

Track links with the PPR2 are provided as standard on the 390D L. The PPR2 is designed to prevent looseness of the track pin in the track link and to reduce stress concentrations. The PPR2 system eliminates pin movement for increased service life.

Carrier Rollers

The carrier rollers use a floating Duo-Cone seal, which reduces the risk of leaking lubricating oil.

Forged Idler

The durable forged idler is standard on the 390D L.

Front Linkage

Built to perform the toughest tasks

Front Linkage

Cat® Excavator booms and sticks are built for performance and long service life.
  • Casting and forgings are used at high stress areas such as the boom nose, boom foot, boom cylinder and stick foot.
  • All booms and sticks are stress-relieved for optimal life and durability while minimizing weight for improved performance.
  • All booms and sticks are ultrasonic inspected to ensure reliability.

Bucket Linkage

Two bucket linkages are available for the 390D L. Both are available with or without a lifting eye.

Boom Construction

390D L booms feature a large cross section to improve strength, reduce weight and maximize payload. Baffle plates reinforce the boom interior for higher rigidity.

Stick Construction

Sticks are made of high-tensile strength steel in a box-section design, making them strong and light. All sticks are reinforced with a thick baffle plate for added rigidity. The connection between stick and boom is made of forged steel, and a thick steel plate is used at the bucket connecting location for increased strength and rigidity at load-bearing points. An additional wear plate is added to the bottom plate to protect against damage. There are two reach sticks, three general purpose sticks and two mass sticks available to meet your needs.

Linkage Pins

All front linkage pins have thick chrome plating, giving them high wear resistance. Each pin diameter is made to distribute the shear and bending loads associated with the stick and to help ensure long pin, boom and stick life.


Reduces stress and vibrations transmitted to the machine

Rock Scraping (1)

Scraping rock and finishing work is easy and fast. SmartBoom™ simplifies the task and allows the operator to fully concentrate on the stick and bucket while the boom freely goes up and down without using pump flow.

Hammer Work (2)

It has never been this productive and operator-friendly. The front parts automatically follow the hammer while penetrating the rock. Blank shots or excessive force on the hammer are avoided, resulting in longer life for the hammer and machine. Similar advantages are applicable when using vibratory plates.

Truck Loading (3)

Loading trucks from a bench is more productive and fuel efficient as the return cycle is reduced while the boom down function does not require pump flow.

Buckets and Teeth

Designed and built for rugged work

Optimized Package

Caterpillar offers a wide range of buckets - each designed and field tested to function as an integral part of your excavator. All Cat® Buckets feature K Series™ Ground Engaging Tools (GET). Buckets are available in four levels of durability and are built to take full advantage of the machine’s power.

General Duty (GD)

General Duty buckets are designed for use in low impact, low abrasion material such as dirt, loam and mixed compositions of dirt and fine gravel.

Heavy Duty (HD)

Heavy Duty buckets are the most popular and a good “centerline” choice. This bucket style is a good starting point when application conditions are not known. Heavy Duty buckets are designed for a wide range of impact and abrasion conditions, including mixed dirt, clay and rock.

Severe Duty (SD)

Severe Duty buckets are designed for higher abrasion conditions such as shot granite. When compared to the Heavy Duty bucket, wear bars and wear plates are substantially thicker and larger for added protection.

Extreme Duty (XD)

Extreme Duty buckets are designed for very high abrasion conditions such as granite quarries. Corner shrouds have been added, and side wear plates are larger for added protection.

Work Tools

Solutions for many applications

Increase Machine Versatility

The Cat combination of machine and tool provides a total solution for just about any application. Work tools can be mounted either directly to the machine or to a quick coupler, making it fast and easy to release one work tool and pick up another.

Quick Coupler

Cat quick couplers enable the operator to simply release one work tool and pick up another so your hydraulic excavator becomes extremely versatile.

Work Tools

An extensive range of Cat Work Tools for the 390D L includes buckets, grapples, shears, multi-processors and rippers. Each is designed to optimize the versatility and performance of your machine. Cat Work Tools and couplers are ready to work in a variety of applications, such as site and structure demolition, debris clean-up, truck loading, scrap processing and breaking road surfaces and bedrock.

Hydraulic Kits

Caterpillar offers field-installed hydraulic kits designed to simplify the process of ordering and installing the right kit. Modular kit designs integrate Cat Work Tools with Cat Hydraulic Excavators. Every kit is easy to install. Hoses are pre-made, tubes are pre-bent and pre-painted and there are comprehensive instructions.


Built to meet a range of requirements


ACERT™ Technology is a differentiated technology that reduces emissions at the point of combustion. It capitalizes on proven Caterpillar leadership in three core engine systems: fuel, air and electronics.

Electro Magnetic Compliance

The 390D L meets the following EMC (Electro Magnetic Compliance) requirements:
  • ISO 13766 Earth Moving Machinery - Electromagnetic compliance
  • EU Directive 89/336/EEC
  • Aus EMC Framework

Fluid Management

Many serviceability elements are designed into the 390D L to limit fluid spillage while performing routing maintenance.


Hydraulic return filters are vertically mounted, capsule-type with shutoffs in the inlet and outlet ports.

Ecology Drains

Ecology drains for the fuel and hydraulic tanks allow fluids to be captured in a container when draining the tanks.

Certified Rebuild

When most other manufacturers’ models require replacement, Cat equipment can be rebuilt using many remanufactured parts. This means less materials going to landfills.

Service and Maintenance

Fast, easy and safe access is built in

Service Intervals

Long service intervals reduce maintenance costs. Engine oil, oil filter and fuel filters are rated at 500 hours.

Oil Sample and Pressure Ports

Oil sample and pressure ports provide easy checking of machine condition and are standard on every machine.

Hydraulic Capsule Filters

The return filters, or capsule filters, for the hydraulic system are located beside the hydraulic tank. The filter elements are removable without spilling hydraulic oil.

Service Points

Service points are centrally located with easy access to facilitate routine maintenance.

Pilot Hydraulic System Filter

A pilot hydraulic system filter keeps contaminants from the pilot system and is located in the pump compartment.

Remote Greasing Block

A concentrated remote greasing block on the boom delivers grease to hard-to-reach locations.

Radial Seal Cleaner

The radial seal main air cleaner with precleaners has a double-layered filter element for more efficient filtration. No tools are required to change the element.

Fuel-Water Separator

The fuel-water separator removes water from fuel, even when under pressure, and the water level can be monitored in the cab.

Complete Customer Support

Cat dealer services to help you operate longer with lower costs

Product Support

Cat dealers utilize a worldwide parts network to minimize machine downtime. Plus you can save money with Cat remanufactured components.

Machine Selection

Make detailed comparisons of machines you are considering. What are the job requirements and machine attachments? What production is needed? Your Cat dealer can provide recommendations.


Consider financing options and day-to-day operating costs. Look at dealer services that can be included in the machine’s cost to yield lower owning and operating costs over time.

Customer Support Agreements

Cat dealers offer a variety of customer support agreements and work with you to develop a plan to meet specific needs. These plans can cover the entire machine, including attachments, to help protect your investment.


Improving operating techniques can boost your profits. Your Cat dealer has videos, literature and other ideas to help you increase productivity. Caterpillar also offers simulators and certified operator training to help maximize the return on your investment.


Repair, rebuild or replace? Your Cat dealer can help you evaluate the cost involved so you can make the right choice.
    •  Alternator - 75 amp
    •  Lights: Cab interior
    •  Signal/warning horn
    •  Power supply at battery compartment - 24V
  • Alternator - 75 amp
    • Lights: Cab interior
      • Signal/warning horn
        • Power supply at battery compartment - 24V
            •  Automatic engine speed control
            •  Automatic swing parking brake
            •  Automatic travel parking brakes
            •  Cat C18 engine with ACERT Technology: - Altitude capability to 2300 m without derating
            •  High ambient cooling, 52° C capability
            •  Side-by-side cooling system with separately mounted AC condenser and variable speed fan
            •  Two speed travel
            •  Water separator with level indicator for fuel line
            •  Electric fuel priming pump
          • GUARDS
            •  Heavy-duty travel motor guards on upper frame
            •  Heavy-duty swivel guard on undercarriage
            •  Heavy-duty travel motor guards on undercarriage
            •  Air conditioner, heater and defroster with automatic climate control
            •  Ashtray and 24V lighter
            •  Beverage/cup holder
            •  Coat hook
            •  Console-mounted, electronic-type joysticks with adjustable gain and response
            •  Floor mat
            •  Instrument panel and gauges with full color graphical display
            •  Literature compartment
            •  Neutral lever (lock-out) for all controls
            •  Positive filtered ventilation
            •  Pressurized cab
            •  Retractable seat belt, 75 mm wide
            •  Stationary skylight (polycarbonate)
            •  Sunshade for windshield and skylight
            •  Travel control pedals with removable hand levers
            •  Windshield wipers and washers (upper and lower)
            •  Grease lubricated and positive pin retention track
            •  Hydraulic track adjusters
            •  Long, variable gauge
            •  Steps, four
            •  Auxiliary hydraulic valve for hydro-mechanical tools
            •  Cat one key security system with locks for doors, cab and fuel cap
            •  Catwalks, left and right sides
            •  Crossroller-type swing bearing
            •  Drive for auxiliary pump
            •  Hand control pattern changer
            •  Mirrors, left and right
            •  S·O·SSM quick sampling valves for engine oil and hydraulic oil
            •  Steel firewall between engine and hydraulic pumps
            •  Wiring provisions for Cat Product Link, AutoLube System and lighted beacon
          • Auxiliary hydraulic valve for hydro-mechanical tools
            • Cat one key security system with locks for doors, cab and fuel cap
              • Catwalks, left and right sides
                • Crossroller-type swing bearing
                  • Drive for auxiliary pump
                    • Hand control pattern changer
                      • Mirrors, left and right
                        • S·O·SSM quick sampling valves for engine oil and hydraulic oil
                          • Steel firewall between engine and hydraulic pumps
                            • Wiring provisions for Cat Product Link, AutoLube System and lighted beacon
                              • FRONT LINKAGE
                                •  Bucket linkages
                                •  VB family for VB sticks (available with or without lifting eye)
                                •  WB family for WB sticks (available with or without lifting eye)
                                •  Buckets - see charts
                                •  Booms (with two working lights): - Mass Excavation - 7250 mm - Reach - 10 000 mm - GP - 8400 mm
                                •  Sticks: - For Mass Boom: M2.92JC M3.4JC - For Reach Boom: R5.5HB2 R4.4HB2 - For GP Boom: R5.5HB2 R4.4HB2 GP3.4JC GP2.92JC
                                •  Tips, sidecutters and edge protectors
                              • TRACK
                                •  Double grouser, heavy duty: - 650 mm - 750 mm - 900 mm
                              • Double grouser, heavy duty: - 650 mm - 750 mm - 900 mm
                                • GUARDS
                                  •  FOGS (Falling Object Guard System) including overhead and windshield guards
                                  •  Track guiding guards: - Full length - Center section
                                  •  Wire mesh screen for windshield
                                  •  Auxiliary controls and lines: - Auxiliary boom lines (high pressure for reach and mass booms) - Auxiliary stick lines (high pressure for reach and mass booms)
                                  •  Basic control arrangements: - Single action - one way, high-pressure circuit for hammer application - Combined function - one way, high-pressure circuit for hammer application function for one-way or two-way high pressure
                                • MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
                                  •  Boom lowering control device with SmartBoom
                                  •  Cab front rain protector
                                  •  Converters, 7 amp-12V (two)
                                  •  Electric refueling pump
                                  •  Fine filtration filter
                                  •  Jump start terminals
                                  •  Reversible cooling fan including protective screen
                                  •  Starting aid with ether for cold weather
                                  •  Stick lowering control device
                                  •  Travel alarm with cut-off switch
                                • Boom lowering control device with SmartBoom
                                  • Cab front rain protector
                                    • Converters, 7 amp-12V (two)
                                      • Electric refueling pump
                                        • Fine filtration filter
                                          • Jump start terminals
                                            • Reversible cooling fan including protective screen
                                              • Starting aid with ether for cold weather
                                                • Stick lowering control device
                                                  • Travel alarm with cut-off switch
                                                    • OPERATOR COMPARTMENT
                                                      •  Joysticks: - Four button joystick for standard machine or single action auxiliary control - Thumb wheel modulation joystick for use with combined auxiliary control
                                                      •  Lunch box storage with lid
                                                      •  Machine Security System with programmable keys
                                                      •  Radio: - AM/FM radio-mounted in right console with antenna and two speakers - Radio-ready mounting at rear location including 24V to 12V converter, speakers, antenna
                                                      •  Seat: - Adjustable, high back with mechanical suspension - Adjustable, high back with air suspension - Adjustable, high back heated with air suspension
                                                      •  Straight travel pedal
                                                      •  Windshield: - One-piece, standard duty - 70-30 split, sliding

                                                    360° Exterior View

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